Anthropology 1: Second Exam: Nonhuman Primates
Answers to the exam questions

Below is a copy of the exam. I have NOT indicated the correct responses for the multiple choice questions since these are marked on your ScanTron. Following the mulitple choice questions are the answers to the essay questions and the extra credit question. If you'd like to discuss your exam with me, please feel free to do so during any of my office hourse on any day OTHER THAN THE DAY I RETURN YOUR EXAM. Each mulitple choice question was worth 2 points, for a total value of 70 points. The essay questions were variable in point value, for a total of 30 points.


1. Hanuman langurs live in social groups consisting of
A. Several adult females & males and their kids.
B. One adult male & several adult females & kids
C. One adult male & one adult female & their kids.
D. One adult female & her kids ­ males are solitary.
E. "B" (above) plus bachelor groups

2. Among bonobos, which individuals seem to be the dominant members of the community?
A. A pair-bonded male and female.
B. High ranking males.
C. High ranking females.
D. The oldest male.
E. The oldest female

3. Which of the following locomotor patterns is most characteristic of gorillas and chimps?
A. brachiating.
B. knuckle-walking quadrupedalism.
C. opportunistic bipedalism.
D. vertical clinging and leaping.
E. None of the above.

4. The term anthropoid refers to a unit of classification that includes
A. monkeys and apes but not humans.
B. lemurs and lorises.
C. apes and humans but not monkeys.
D. monkeys, apes and humans
E. lemurs, lorises, monkeys, apes and humans.

5. The scientific name Macaca fuscata refers to
A. bonobos
B. gorillas
C. snow monkeys
D. hanuman langurs
E. None of the above

6. The primary function of reciprocal grooming is to . . .
A. remove parasites from the skin and hair.
B. initiate sexual activity.
C. build and maintain social relationships.
D. keep dominant males in a good mood.
E. None of the above.

7. When it's said that a particular physical trait is "primitive," what does that mean?
A. It's not very useful anymore.
B. It's little changed from the ancestral form.
C. It's bad for those individuals who possess it.
D. It's not very well developed.
E. None of the above.

8. Having a wet nose, mobile ears and immobile faces are characteristic of
A. All the apes except for the gibbons and siamangs
B. Lemurs
C. Chimpanzees and bonobos, but not gorillas
D. Lemurs and lorises.
E. None of the above.

9. During a visit to the zoo, you try to impress your date by demonstrating your broad knowledge of primates. Stopping at one of the primate enclosures, you start rattling off about the primates before you, ending with the statement that they are a prime example of the platyrrhini. Your date asks you how you know that and you respond by saying "It's elementary my dear, just look at their ______." To what were you referring?
A. Tool using abilities.
B. Grasping hands and feet.
C. Wet noses and whiskers
D. Prehensile tails
E. None of the above.

10. Which of the following traits distinguish hominids from Pan troglodytes?
A. Symbolic behavior
B. Tool manufacture and use.
C. Cooperative hunting and sharing
D. Bowl-shaped pelvis
E. dental formula

11. If you find a primate up in the trees using a modified twig to obtain honey, the primate is most like a ___ and you are in ___
A. lemur / Madagascar
B. orangutan / southeast Asia.
C. macaque / Japan
D. gorilla / central Africa
E. bonobos / Zaire

12. The diet of Japanese snow monkeys consists of
A. insects and leaves
B. fruits and leaves
C. leaves
D. fruits, leaves, nuts, flowers
E. fruits, leaves, nuts, flowers and occasionally small invertebrates (like crayfish)

13. If you wanted to study lemurs in their natural habitats, where would you have to go?
A. Japan
B. Tropical Africa and Asia
C. Borneo and Sumatra
D. Madagascar
E. All of the above

14. In the winter, snow monkeys subsist on
A. bark
B. bark and nuts gathered and stored in late fall
C. bark and stored body fat
D. bark, nuts and sometimes birds' eggs
E. bark, nuts, birds' eggs, occasionally mammals

15. Which of the following features differentiate anthropoids from prosimians?
A. Anthropoids are diurnal, prosimians nocturnal.
B. Prosimians are terrestrial and arboreal, anthropoids are only arboreal.
C. Only anthropoids have 3-D vision.
D. Anthropoids are omnivores, prosimians are insectivores.
E. None of the above distinguish anthropoids from prosimians.

16. You've been asked to carry out an extended field study of cooperative hunting among the non-human primates. Which primates would you most likely choose and where would you choose to work?
A. Macacca fuscata / Texas.
B. Pan troglodytes / Tanzania.
C. Pan paniscus / Zaire.
D. Gorilla gorilla / west Africa
E. Hanuman langurs / India

17. Which species of non-human primate is most like modern humans in terms of violence, male-dominate social groups, use of tools, and flexible social groupings.
A. gorillas
B. bonobos
C. chimpanzees
D. orangutans
E. All of the above.

18. While carrying out fieldwork among a group of primates in their natural habitat, you're struck by their frequent use of modified twigs to obtain food. The primates you're studying are
A. Snow monkeys and hanuman langurs
B. Snow monkeys, hanuman langurs and chimpanzees
C. Chimpanzees and bonobos
D. Chimpanzees, bonobos and snow monkeys
E. All of the above.

19. Spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchin monkeys possess a physical feature that makes them rather distinctive in the world of monkeys. What is that physical feature?
A. They evolved teeth designed for eating leaves.
B. They evolved brachiating as a way to reach fruits at the ends of branches.
C. They possess prehensile tails.
D. They routinely hunt small mammals and insects.
E. All of the above.

20. The major threat to primates is
A. Hunting by humans
B. Habitat destruction.
C. Lack of genetic diversity.
D. Hunting by carnivores.
E. All of the above.

21. Sexual activity outside of estrus is a trait of
A. Chimpanzees
B. Chimpanzees and bonobos
C. Chimpanzees, bonobos and humans
D. Bonobos and humans
E. Humans, bonobos and snow monkeys

22. A male bonobo's social rank depends foremost on
A. his physical strength
B. his mother's social rank
C. his father's social rank
D. his hunting ability
E. All of the above.

23. Bonobos are members of the
A. superfamily Hominoidea
B. suborder Anthropoidea
C. order Primates.
D. class Mammalia.
E. All of the above.

24. In primates evolutionary history, one of the most important developments was
A. hair, mammary glands and a constant body temperature
B. color vision and adaptation to ground-dwelling
C. mobile ears and grasping hands
D. grasping hands and 3-D vision
E. All of the above.

25. Which of the following primates has equal length lower arm bones?
A. Macaca fuscata.
B. Pan paniscus
C. Gorilla gorilla
D. Homo sapiens
E. All except Macaca fuscata

26. Of all the social bonds primates make, the most important and long-lasting are those between
A. a core group of biologically related males
B. a female and her offspring
C. a core group of biologically related females
D. a pair-bonded male and female
E. a pair-bonded male-female and their offspring

27. Pan troglodytes have been observed eating ____ to control _____.
A. stinging termites / upset stomach
B. clay / internal bleeding
C. leaves / worms
D. leaves / bleeding gums
E. bamboo / vomiting

28. _____ been observed carrying out cooperative hunting, infanticide and inter-group violence?
A. Gorilla gorilla.
B. Pan troglodytes.
C. Macaca fuscata.
D. Pan paniscus
E. "B" and "C"

29. Most female primates experience estrus during which they
A. sleep, groom only females, and ovulate
B. wean their young
C. are more interested in mating than at other times.
D. immigration into neighboring groups
E. All of the above.

30. Among bonobos, when females immigrate, they must ___ of the group into which they are immigrating
A. fight the dominant male
B. engage in sexual activities with dominant males
C. engage in sexual activities with dominant females
D. find a high-ranking male sponsor
E. None of the above.

31. Leaf clipping among chimps
A. Signals sexual readiness on the part of females.
B. Alerts others to favored food resources.
C. Signals the leaf-clippers desire to be groomed.
D. Helps find community members during the night.
E. None of the above.

32. A number of primates species have been observed engaging in tool manufacture and use, including
A. humans and chimpanzees
B. humans, chimps and gorillas
C. humans, chimps and snow monkeys
D. humans, chimps and orangutans
E. All of the above

33. You're walking down a trail in a forest when you come upon two primates engaged in a stink fight. Where are you and what species are you watching?
A. India / hanuman langurs
B. Costa Rica / howler monkeys
C. Madagascar / aye-ayes
D. Zaire / bonobos
E. Madagascar / ring-tailed lemurs

34. The most frequent makers and users of tools among chimpanzees are
A. adult males
B. adult females
C. juvenile females
D. juvenile males
E. None of these. Chimps don't make tools

35. You are planning on giving a paper at the American Association of Biological Anthropologists on your 2 1/2 years of fieldwork among a community of primates in their natural habitat. While much of your paper deals with their human-like sexual behavior, you also stress that these primates spend an equal amount of time in knuckle-walking and opportunistic bipedalism. Which of the following titles would most likely be that of your paper? [THINK about this]
A. Among the Wild Chimpanzees. Field Observations of Pan troglodytes
Gentle Giants: The Gorillas of West Africa
Oh You Sexy Thing: The Bonobos of Zaire
Leaping Lemurs: Madagascar's First Primates
Hot Tubbing Primates: Macacca fuscata

Below are the TEN ESSAY questions ­ and what I feel are the most correct answers

A. List 5 physical traits that set primates apart from other mammals. (Don't list general traits like fur, etc.) 5 pts
ANSWER: Binocular, stereoscopic 3-D vision; post-orbital closure (or a bony ring completely around the eye sockets); color vision; grasping hands; four fingers and a thumb on the hands and five toes on the feet; an opposable thumb; retention of the clavicle; tactile pads on the ends of the fingers; fingernails; generalized dentition and generalized diet.

Note: Several of you gave answers such as: "mammary glands" (which are general mammalian traits); or "dentition" (but without saying what was primate specific about the dentition); or "bipedalism" (which means little without the qualifier "opportunistic").

B. Name and describe two types of tools that chimps make and/or use. Be very specific in your answer. 4 pts
ANSWER: Termite wands; honey ant wands; leaf sponges; bone-splinter probes; specific leaves for treating intestinal parasites.

C. Jane Goodall suggested that we have much to learn about ourselves by studying chimps. What did she mean by this? (Be very specific in your answer.) 5 pts
ANSWER: We share much of our genetic make-up (98-99%), our morphology (physical structures) and behavior with chimps. We do so because we've inherited these commonalities from a common ancestor. Therefore any commonalities that were in the last common ancestor and in modern chimps and humans must also have been in all the species that link modern chimps and humans to that common ancestor. And because behavior doesn't fossilize, we can't dig it up. So using the analogy, we can make hypotheses about the behavior of our human ancestors.

D. In the film The New Chimpanzees you learned how some chimps' have altered the symbolic meaning of one of their behaviors. What is this behavior and what was the change in its symbolic meaning? 2 pts
ANSWER: The chimps changed leaf-clipping from "I'd like to be groomed" to "I'm interested in you. Another change, although not for chimps, is the symbolic meanings associated with sexual behavior among bonobos.

E. I've suggested that certain behaviors of Japanese macaques could be considered "cultural behavior." What are those behaviors? Be very specific (do NOT say mothering, grooming, etc. as these are pan-primate and aren't considered "cultural" behaviors.) 2 pts
ANSWER: Inventing washing of sweet potatoes in fresh water and then passing that learned behavior on to others and the addition of dipping already washed potatoes into salt water, possible for seasoning them; changing the danger in the sky call to danger on the ground.

F. Old World monkeys are divided into two basic subgroups. What are the two subgroups and what's the basis for the subdivision? In other words, what set members of one group apart from members of the other group? (Do NOT simple say, for example, "choice of dance music," but specify the type of dance music each prefers.) 2 pts
ANSWER: The two subgroups are leaf-eaters (who eat only leaves) and cheek-pouched (who eat lots of different foods.)

G. List 2 physical features of American monkeys that easily distinguish them from Old World monkeys. Give very specific examples! 2 pts
ANSWER: American monkeys have dental formula (vs. for Old World monkeys), they have widely spaced nostrils with openings to the side (vs. narrowly spaced, forward or downward nostril openings of Old World monkeys), and some American monkeys have prehensile tails. NOTE: Saying American monkeys are arboreal vs. the arboreal and terrestrial patterns of Old World monkeys is NOT a physical trait, unless you specific the skeletal differences.

H. List 2 physical features of prosimians that easily distinguish them from anthropoids. Give specific examples! 2 pts
ANSWER: Prosimians do not have a post-orbital septum (all anthropoids' eyes are completely enclosed in bone); prosimians have wet noses with whiskers (anthropoids don't); prosimians have long snouts and depend on smell (anthropoids do not have long snouts and do not depend on smell); prosimians have a dental comb (anthropoids have vertically implanted incisors); prosimians have a two-piece mandible (anthropoids have a fused mandible).

I. List 2 physical features of apes that easily distinguish them from Old World monkeys. Give specific examples! 2 pts
ANSWER: Monkeys have tails while apes have no tails; apes have unequal length lower arm bones while monkeys' lower arm bones are the same length; apes have broad shoulders and are shallow chests while monkeys have narrow shoulders and deep chests; apes have 5 cusps on their back molars while monkeys have only 4 cusps.

J. Ask your instructor for the Primate Photo Gallery sheet. Identify the 8 primates shown. 4 pts
ANSWER: ring tailed lemur; orangutan; hanuman langur; bonobo, aye-aye; Japanese snow monkey; sifaka; chimpanzee

EXTRA CREDIT: Black and white ruffed lemur (can be seen at the S.F. Zoo)