Spring Semester 2000
Hartnell College

NOTE: Please come to the final exam ON TIME. Arriving late is not only discourteous to your other classmates, but it breaks their concentration. Bring to the exam a pencil or pen (blue or black ink only) - you will not be allowed the use of notes, your book, or a friend. If you wish to know your final exam grade and/or your semester grade, please bring to the final exam a stamped, self-addressed #10 envelope [4 1/2 x 10 1/8]; or you may email me [].

Why do anthropologists study non-human primates? Approx. how many species of primates are there? Adaptation to what particular environment-habitat has been most significant in primate evolution?

Genetically, what specific group of primates is humanity's closest living relative? How close, in terms of genetic sameness?

Give a SPECIFIC EXAMPLE of a primate species that
brachiates --- knuckle walks --- walks on soles of feet and palms of hands --- walks only on soles of feet

Primates lives in many different types of social groupings. Briefly describe the basic social grouping of: · siamangs · gorillas · orangutans · chimpanzees and bonobos · macaques. What are some of the advantages of living in social groups?

Chimpanzees engage in "cultural" behavior' perhaps macaques as well. Name several examples of this behavior .

I said that the development of new behavioral patterns by the macaques who became adapted to the Texas environment might be termed "cultural." What behaviors was I talking about (you should at least talking about how the macaques living in Texas handled predators - like coyotes and mountain lions - as well as rattlesnakes?

What is estrus? Do humans have/not have it? What about other primates? In terms of sexual behavior, which species of primates is most like that of humans?

Be prepared to define, or understand in context, the following terms/concepts:


ABO blood groups

sickle cell trait / anemia

Law of Segregation

hybrid (mestiza/mestizo)

Independent Assortment

homologous chromosomes


 natural selection





somatic cells


gene frequency



crossing over





gene flow


genetic drift



recessive dominant



amino acids

What do anthropologist study? What do physical anthropologists study?

What are the major ways in which the genetic make-up of a population changes over time? In other words, what are the sources of variation? [Please be able to do more than just list them]

What's an allele? When we say an allele is dominant [or recessive], what do we mean?

How many pairs of chromosomes does a human body cell contain? a human sex cell? a chimpanzee body cell? a chimpanzee sex cell?

What's the term used to refer to the exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes? And exactly what are homologous chromosomes?

Why is the process of "crossing-over" important?

What are the building blocks of proteins?

For every physical trait a sexually reproducing organism has, how many alleles does it have for that specific trait? Are alleles always the same? different?

What happens to its paired alleles when an organism produces sex cells? What is the name given to this phenomenon?

What is the term used to refer to individuals who carry different alleles at a given location on both members of a chromosome pair? How about those that carry the same alleles? (BE CAREFUL: I am NOT asking about dominant vs. recessive)? When two alleles are present & both are expressed in the phenotype, what do we call this?

What's the term by which we call those alleles that ARE expressed in the presence of another (different) allele at the same location on a pair of chromosomes? What's the term for those alleles that are NOT expressed?

Denise can NOT role her tongue, but her biological brother Jorge can. What are the genotypes for Denise, Jorge, and their parents?

If we mate two people, both of whom are heterozygotes for a recessive trait (such as sickle-cell hemoglobin), what's the likelihood they will have a child who expresses the condition?

Please give a definition of a gene, either in terms of a gene's structure or a gene's function.

Explain "Natural Selection" (include the major points. Also give an example of natural selection in action--example can be real or made up--it doesn't matter as long as I can see you understand).

In a malarial environment, which individuals [in terms of genotype] would be the most fit? Why?

All humans have the gene for the trait "tongue-ing." How many different alleles for this gene are there in the human population. How many alleles does an individual human possess for this trait? Also, all humans have a gene for the trait blood type. How many different alleles for this gene are there in the human population. How many alleles does an individual human possess for this trait?

Mendel's work laid the foundations for the science of genetics. As a result of his experiments he was able to work out the two basic laws of inheritance: Segregation, Independent Assortment. Please be able to explain what these two laws mean - or at least give an example of each one.

When Mendel crossed peas with two contrasting traits (e.g., plant height and seed color) what did he find in the offspring (both the first generation as well as the second generation)?

Suppose that you are called to testify in a case of disputed parentage and you chose to use the MN blood system (in which the two alleles M & N are co-dominant), in order to establish paternity. The mother and child both have type N blood, the husband has type MN and the accused man has type N. What would you advise the court, and why, in the issue of parentage? What if the husband had type M & the accused man type MN? What would you advise the court; why?

Why do anthropologists study non-human primates? Adaptation to what environment-habitat has been most significant in primate evolution?

In humans, the ability to taste PTC is inherited as a DOMINANT . Persons who can't taste it are HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE. Given this, answer the following: Maria can roll her tongue & taste PTC. Both her husband & her mother can't roll their tongues nor taste PTC. What genotypes & phenotypes could appear among the offspring of Maria & her husband?

There is a group of physical features which, to a greater or lesser degree, characterize the Order Primates . List at least 8 such features

The English language (code) consists of 26 letters (or about 35 sounds). The Hawaiian 'code' consists of 13 letters. Words in either language can be made up of as few as one letter, or as many as a dozen or more (e.g., anthropology; humuhumunukunukuapua'a). How many 'letters' (called bases) are in the genetic code? How many bases does it take to make a 'word' (codon) in the genetic language? How many codons are there in the genetic code?

FINAL EXAM TIME: 6 p.m. - 8:50 p.m., 30 May 2000