ANTHR1 - Physical Anthropology Second Exam Study Guide - Nonhuman Primates

The SECOND EXAM is TENTATIVELY SCHEDULED for the WEEK OF APRIL 24TH and will cover materials introduced since the first exam - including all lectures, videos shown, and readings from Chapters 7, 8, 9 and 10 of your text, plus Appendeix B. To date, this semester's course content has been slightly to significantly different in some areas than previous classes. Go through these study questions, consult your notes and the textbook and write down what you feel are the most correct answers. Then bring your answers to me and we can go over them to see what you do - and do not - know.

I've put online a page comparing the Old and New World monkeys. It might be of help in studying for your 2nd exam.

Understanding of chimp behavior today helps us to understand the ways in which our early ancestors may have behaved because I think any behaviors shared by the modern chimps and modern humans was probably in the common ancestor of humans and chimps and if it was present in the common ancestor, therefore it was present in the early humans. Jane Goodall

1. Which types of primates have immobile faces and mobile ears?

2. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: When walking on the ground, gorillas move ( bipedally / quadrupedally ) and when in the trees they ( climb / brachiate ).

3. Aye-ayes possess a number of physical features that make them rather distinctive in comparison with the other members of the lemur family. What are those distinctive features?

4. Observations suggest that the social relationships that provide a primate group with its stability are those between ______ and ______.

5. If you encountered a primate with a grasping tail, you would most likely say it was a ____ ?

6. The definition of humans as tool making animals has been questioned because of the discovery of ___ ?

7. The primate Order is traditionally divided into two large sub-groupings, the ___ and the ___ .

8. To what does the term "sexual dimorphism" refer?

9. What is the major threat facing contemporary free-ranging primates?

10. What kinds of behaviors do chimpanzees engage in that make them more like humans than like other apes / monkeys.

11. Except for the hominids, the only primates to regularly live in cold / snowy climates are the _____ .

12. What new types of behavior did the macaques sent to Texas display?

13. Which primates are most like humans with regard to sexual practices?

14. When we say a primate moves by "brachiation", exactly what does that mean?

15. Why is a dominance hierarchy an adaptive mechanism?

16. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: The basic social unit among all primates is the (mated female-male pair / related adult males / mother and her dependent offspring / related adult females).

17. Chimps and humans make and use tools. What other species of primates also have been observed using and making tools in the wild?

18. Among chimpanzees, which individuals use tools most frequently?

19. Of all primates, which probably provide the 'best' model for pre-hominid / early hominid behavior?

20. Among gracile chimpanzees, which individuals seem to be the dominant members of the community?

21. Why is leaf clipping such a significant behavior pattern among chimps?


NOTE: Questions 22 through 27 refer to vervets and black and white colobus monkeys, species that I sometimes discuss. If I did NOT discuss them in one of our class meetings, then there will be NO questions on your exam about vervets or black and white colobus.

22. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: At the onset of (old age / puberty ) vervet (males / females) are forced to leave the group they were born and raised in and seek entrance to a different group.

23. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: In the dry season, vervets often eat the bark and leaves of the (elephant / acacia / banana) tree.

24. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: The vervet monkey is a (folivorous / frugivorous / omnivorous) species found in many parts of (Africa, Asia, South America) that prefers to live in (grasslands / riverine woodlands / deep tropical rain forests).

25. Vervets are (primarily arboreal / primarily terrestrial / equally at home in the trees and on the ground).

26. Black and white colobus monkeys are representative of the (leaf-eating / cheek-pouched) monkeys.

27. Black and white colobus monkeys are (primarily arboreal / primarily terrestrial / equally at home in the trees and on the ground).

28. When it's said that a particular physical trait (such as wet noses among the prosimians) is "primitive," what does that mean?

29. Which primates have sex when not in estrus?

30. In what biological taxonomic Family are all Old World (Afro-Eurasian) monkeys classified?

31. Who is famous for studying chimps in their native habitat?

32. Name two species of prosimians.

33. What is the primary function of mutual grooming?

34. Name at least one specific physical and one specific behavioral difference between bonobos and chimps.

35. In what ways do apes differ from monkeys?

36. Dominance hierarchies - why do all primates have them?

37. After a conflict, chimps often immediately begin to restore harmony within the group. In what ways do chimps attempt reconciliation?

38. Briefly describe the tool making / tool using capabilities of the chimpanzees.

39. What function(s) does leaf clipping serve among chimps? Remember, that it originally meant one thing, but now it means something very different.

40. The strongest social bonds among primates occur between ___ and ____ .

41. Name two primate species that are nocturnal: one must be a kind of prosimian, the other a kind of anthropoid.

42. Vision is of primary importance to the primates, but many primates also rely upon smell and hearing. Name a primate species that depends largely upon the senses of smell and hearing and briefly describe how smell and hearing are used.

43. For what reasons do gracile chimpanzees engage in sexual behavior?

44. In terms of geography, where are lemurs found? Tarsiers?

45. What physical features differentiate hominids from apes?

46. Match a list of primates with their common locomotor pattern (i.e., vertical clinging & leaping is typical of ____; knuckle-walking is typical of ____; etc.)

47. Match a list of primates with their usual home locations. E.g.,

gibbons and siamangs
ringtailed lemurs
Central America
Southeast Asia

48. List at least five physical features that, to a greater or lesser degree, characterize the Order Primates.

49. Why do anthropologists study the non-human primates?[Think about the Jane Goodall quote.]

50. How do Japanese snow monkeys handle carnivore predators?

51. Chimpanzees & macaques engage in several forms of cultural behavior. Name several specific forms of such behavior among the chimps and several such behaviors among the macaques.

52. What was significant about the way in which the Texas macaques dealt with rattlesnakes?

53. List three adaptive advantages to primates of living in social groups.

54. If all monkeys, apes and humans are placed in the same suborder, but apes and humans are grouped together in a separate superfamily from Old World monkeys, what is being implied regarding biological relationships?

55. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: The gorilla primarily a (folivorous / frugivorous / omnivorous) species, but will also eat ( small rocks / clay ) for the minerals that the gorilla can not obtain from its regular food sources.

56. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: The leader of most gorilla groups is a mature (black-back female / black-back male / silver-back male / mated pair of silver-back male and female).

57. Among gorillas, a female's rank in the social hierarchy depends upon what?

58. What specific physical and/or behavioral features clearly separate the prosimians from the anthropoids?

59. Spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchin monkeys ­ they all possess a physical feature that makes them rather distinctive in the world of monkeys. What is that physical feature? [Are you graspin' what I'm askin'? And please, make sure your answer is not too much of a whale of a tale.]

60. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: Among the gracile chimps, when ( females / males ) reach sexual maturity, they leave the group in which they were born and raised and move into another group.

61. In the following sentence chose the word(s) that best complete the sentence: Gracile chimp society can be characterized as (an egaliatarian / male dominated) while robust chimp society is best characterized as (an egaliatarian / male dominated).

62. It's not uncommon for arboreal monkeys to have somewhat different morphologies when compared with the more terrestrial oriented monkeys. What's one very common difference between these two types of monkeys?

Hopefully, you've read all the way to here because. . .