MULTIPLE CHOICE: Select the single best answer for each of the questions below.

1. Observations suggest that for most primates, the social relationships that provide a primate group with its stability are those between ______ .

A. a mother and her dependent offspring.

B. a pair-bonded male and female

C. genetically related females.

D. genetically related males

E. None of the above.


2. The most remarkable change in the behavior of the Texas macaques' with respect to rattlesnakes was

A. their use of clubs to kill them.

B. assigning new meaning to their "danger-in-the-sky" call.

C. eating them.

D. removing the rattles and playing with them.

E. None of the above.


3. Among bonobos, which individuals seem to be the dominant members of the community?

A. A pair-bonded male and female.

B. High ranking males.

C. High ranking females.

D. The oldest male.

E. The oldest female


4. If you were studying a primate population in which the dominant member was refered to as a "silverback", what primates would you most likely be observing?

A. bonobos.

B. macaques.

C. chimpanzees.

D. gorillas.

E. bonobos and chimpanzees.


5. Who is famous for studying chimpanzees in their native habitat?

A. Birute Galdikas.

B. Jane Goodall.

C. Dian Fosey.

D. Shirley Strum.

E. Takahasi Kano.


6. The video "A Life in the Trees" examined the

A. cultural abilities of lemurs, langurs and lorises

B. lifestyles of many species of primates

C. hunting of monkeys by people living in the Amazonian rainforests

D. evolution of primates as arboreal animals

E. None of the above.


7. Which of the following locomotor patterns is most characteristic of gorillas?

A. brachiating.

B. knuckle-walking quadrupedalism.

C. opportunistic bipedalism.

D. vertical clinging and leaping.

E. None of the above.


8. The term anthropoid refers to a unit of classification that includes

A. monkeys and apes but not humans.

B. lemurs and lorises.

C. apes and humans but not monkeys.

D. monkeys, apes and humans

E. lemurs, lorises, monkeys, apes and humans.


9. The scientific name Macacca fuscata refers to

A. bonobos

B. gorillas

C. snow monkeys

D. hanuman langurs

E. None of the above.


10. The bonobo's closest living relatives are the

A. lemurs.

B. chimpanzees.

C. macaques.

D. hominids.

E. all of these.


11. Bonobos are best known for their

A. tool use and manufacture.

B. cooperative hunting patterns.

C. habitual bipedalism.

D. sexual behaviors outside of estrus.

E. None of the above.


12. The primary function of mutual (reciprocal) grooming is to . . .

A. remove parasites from the skin and hair.

B. initiate sexual activity.

C. build and maintain social relationships.

D. keep dominant males in a good mood.

E. None of the above.


13. When it's said that a particular physical trait is "primitive," what does that mean?

A. It's not very useful anymore.

B. It's little changed from the ancestral form.

C. It's bad for those individuals who possess it.

D. It's not very well developed.

E. None of the above.


14. In which of the following world areas are terrestrial (ground dwelling) monkeys uncommon?

A. The Americas

B. Asia

C. Africa

D. India

E. All of these.


15. Having a wet nose, mobile ears and immobile faces are characteristic of

A. All the apes except for the gibbons and siamangs

B. Lemurs

C. Chimpanzees and bonobos, but not gorillas

D. Lemurs and lorises.

E. None of the above.


16. Molecular evidence indicat that chimpanzees are most closely related to ...

A. gibbons.

B. humans.

C. gorillas.

D. orang-utans.

E. None of the above.


17. If you were observing a primate community in which the females were equal to males in terms of domiance, you would most likely be observing

A. chimpanzees

B. gorillas.

C. macaques

D. bonobos

E. Both "A" and "C"


18. The macaques sent to Texas

A. were unable to survive and died out.

B. experienced severe predation by coyotes.

C. invented new adaptive behaviors

D. learned to kill and eat rattlesnakes

E. "C" and "D"


19. The diet of Japanese snow monkeys consists of

A. insects and leaves

B. fruits and leaves

C. leaves

D. fruits, leaves, nuts, flowers

E. fruits, leaves, nuts, flowers and occasionally small invertebrates (like crayfish)


20. If you wanted to study lemurs in their natural habitats, where would you have to go?

A. Japan

B. Tropical Africa and Asia

C. Southeast Asia, especially the islands of Borneo and Sumatra

D. Madagascar

E. All of the above


21. Snow monkeys display remarkable "cultural" behavior, including

A. using stones to crack open nuts

B. fashioning honey dipping wands

C. building beds high in the trees

D. suppression of estrus behavior

E. washing sweet potatoes in fresh or sea water


22. Which of the following modern primate species is characterized by noticeable sexual dimorphism?

A. Homo sapiens

B. Pan paniscus

C. Lemur catta

D. Gorilla gorilla

E. All of the above.


23. Which of the following features differentiate anthropoids from prosimians?

A. Anthropoids are diurnal, prosimians are nocturnal.

B. Prosimians are both terrestrial and arboreal, anthropoids are only arboreal.

C. Only anthropoids have binocular stereoscopic vision (meaning 3-D vision).

D. Anthropoids are omnivores, prosimians are insectivores.

E. None of the above distinguish anthropoids from prosimians.


24. You are planning on giving a paper at the American Association of Biological Anthropologists on your 2 1/2 years of fieldwork among a community of primates in their natural habitat. While much of your paper deals with their human-like sexual behavior, you also stress that these primates spend an equal amount of time in knuckle-walking and opportunistic bipedalism. Which of the following titles would most likely be that of your paper? [THINK about this]

A. Among the Wild Chimpanzees. Field Observations of Pan troglodytes

B. Gorillas In The Mist. Field Observations of Gorilla gorilla

C. Oh You Sexy Thing! Field Observations of Pan paniscus

D. Leaping Lemurs! Field Observations of Lemur catta.

E. Among the Hot tubbing Primates. Field Observations of Macaca fuscatta


25. In the winter, snow monkeys subsist on

A. bark

B. bark and nuts they gather and store in the late fall

C. bark and stored body fat

D. bark, nuts and sometimes birds' eggs

E. bark, nuts, birds' eggs and occassionally small mammals


26. If you read your book, then you would know which of the following are platyrrhine primates.

A. gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos

B. lemurs, lorises and tarsiers

C. howler monkeys and spider monkeys

D. langurs and snow monkeys

E. All of the above are platyrrhine primates


27. The scientific name of the snow monkey is ...

A. Papio cynocephalus.

B. Pan troglodytes.

C. Hylobates lar.

D. Macaca fuscata.

E. None of the above.


28. If you see a monkey with a prehensile tail, then you know it,s a monkey that evolved in ...

A. Africa.

B. Asia.

C. Europe.

D. South America.

E. All of the above.


29. Which species of non-human primate is most like modern humans in terms of violence, male-dominate social groups, use of tools, and flexible social groupings.

A. gorillas

B. bonobos

C. chimpanzees

D. orangutans

E. All of the above.


30. In general, anthropoids can be differentiated from prosimians because most prosimians

A. eat insects - most anthropoids don't

B. have color vision - most anthropoids don't

C. are arboreal - most anthropoids aren't

D. depend on smell - few anthropoids do

E. All of these


31. A savannah is ...

A. a habitat that is mostly grassland with some trees.

B. a species of prosimian.

C. the behavior that a male gorilla uses to herd females.

D. the lower portion of the vertebral column.

E. None of the above.


32. While carrying out fieldwork among a group of primates in their natural habitat, you're struck by their frequent use of modified twigs to obtain food. The primates you're studying are

A. Snow monkeys and hanuman langurs

B. Snow monkeys, hanuman langurs and chimpanzees

C. Chimpanzees and bonobos

D. Chimpanzees, bonobos and snow monkeys

E. All of the above.


33. Spider monkeys, howler monkeys, capuchin monkeys possess a physical feature that makes them rather distinctive in the world of monkeys. What is that physical feature?

A. They evolved teeth designed for eating leaves.

B. They evolved brachiating as a way to reach fruits at the ends of branches.

C. They possess prehensile tails.

D. They routinely hunt small mammals and insects.

E. All of the above.


34. According to information presented in lectures, the major threat to primates is . .

A. Hunting by humans

B. Habitat destruction.

C. Lack of genetic diversity.

D. Hunting by carnivores.

E. All of the above.


35. Which of the following primate species engages in sexual activity outside of estrus?

A. Chimpanzees

B. Chimpanzees and bonobos

C. Chimpanzees, bonobos and humans

D. Bonobos and humans

E. Humans, bonobos and snow monkeys


36. The social rank of a male bonobo depends first and foremost on

A. his physical strength

B. his mother's social rank

C. his father's social rank

D. his hunting ability

E. All of the above.


37. Lorises are members of ...

A. superfamily Lorisoidea.

B. suborder Prosimii.

C. order Primates.

D. class Mammalia.

E. All of the above.


38. Which of the following primates are opportunistic bipeds?

A. orang-utans.

B. langurs.

C. chimpanzees.

D. macaques.

E. All of the above.


39. If you find a primate with very sharp chisel like incisors, large ears, and a skeletonize middle digit on its hands, you know it is probably ...

A. a lemur.

B. an American monkey.

C. an ape.

D. an aye-aye.

E. None of the above.


40. In the primates' evolutionary history, one of the most important developments was

A. hair, mammary glands and a constant body temperature

B. color vision and adaptation to ground-dwelling

C. mobile ears and grasping hands

D. grasping hands and 3-D vision

E. All of the above.


41. Which of the following primate species is a quadrupedal knuckle-walker?

A. Langurs

B. Chimpanzees.

C. Hominids.

D. Snow monkeys

E. A and D.


42. Which of the following foods do baboons and chimpanzees eat?

A. Fruits

B. Leaves

C. Insects

D. Roots

E. All of the above.


43. Bonobo society can be characterized as . . .

A. egalitarian.

B. male-dominated.

C. female-dominated.

D. extremely unstable.

E. C and D.


44. Of all the social bonds primates make, the most important and long-lasting are those between

A. a core group of biologically related males

B. a female and her dependent offspring

C. a core group of biologicallyrelated females

D. a pair-bonded male and female

E. a pair-bonded male and female and their dependent offspring


45. In the video The New Chimpanzees, one community of Pan troglodytes was observed eating a substance which the primatologists said acted as a medicine. What was the substance and what ailment were the chimps trying to control?

A. stinging termites / upset stomach

B. clay / internal bleeding

C. leaves / worms

D. leaves / bleeding gums

E. bamboo / vomiting


46. Which of the following primates species has been observed carrying out cooperative hunting, infanticide and inter-group violence?

A. Gorilla gorilla.

B. Pan troglodytes.

C. Macaca fuscata.

D. Pan paniscus

E. "B" and "D"


47. All female primates experience estrous during which they ...

A. sleep, groom only females, and ovulate.

B. wean their young

C. are more interested in mating than at other times.

D. experiment with immigration into neighboring groups

E. All of the above.


48. Among bonobos, when males immigrate, they must ___ of the group into which they are immigrating

A. fight the dominant male

B. engage in sexual activities with the dominant male

C. engage in sexual activities with the dominant female

D. find a high-ranking male sponsor

E. None of the above.


49. Vertical clinging and leaping is

A. a hominid sexual behavior.

B. a pattern of feeding behavior among langurs.

C. a characteristic locomotor pattern among some lemurs.

D. rarely seen in the prosimians but quite common in American monkeys.

E. None of the above.


50. What function(s) does leaf clipping serve among chimps?

A. Signals sexual readiness on the part of females.

B. Alerts members of the community to favored food resources.

C. Signals the leaf-clippers desire to be groomed.

D. Helps locate community members during the night.

E. None of the above.


51. The first person to officially classify humans together with monkeys and apes into the same category was

A. Darwin

B. Lamarck

C. Linnaeus

D. Mendel

E. None of the above


52. A number of primates species have been observed engaging in tool manufacture and use, including

A. humans and chimpanzees

B. humans, chimps and gorillas

C. humans, chimps and snow monkeys

D. humans, chimps and orangutans

E. All of these


53. The term "sexual dimorphism" refers to

A. differences in body size between children and adults

B. differences in body size between males and females

C. differences in the genetic information on the X and Y chromosomes of some primate species

D. sexual preferences among chimps

E. sexual preferences among bonobos


54. You're walking down a trail in a forest when you come upon two primates engaged in a stink fight. Where are you and what species are you watching?

A. India / hanuman langurs

B. Costa Rica / howler monkeys

C. Madagascar / aye-ayes

D. Zaire / bonobos

E. Madagascar / ringtailed lemurs


55. The most frequent makers and users of tools among chimpanzees are

A. adult males

B. adult females

C. juvenile females

D. juvenile males

E. None of these. Chimps don't make tools


56. If you were in the market for a new pitcher for your baseball team, which one of the following primates would you hire?

A. Louis Lemur

B. Bobby Baboon

C. Marty Macaque

D. Chuckie Chimp

E. Lamont Langur


57. A dental formula is found in

A. macaques, bonobos and hominids

B. macaques, langurs and howlers

C. bonobos, gibbons and hominids

D. langurs, lemurs and howlers

E. all of these


58. Which of the skulls below belonged to a nocturnal primate?


Skull A


Skull B


Skull C


Skull D

A. Skulls A and B

B. Skulls B and C

C. Skulls C and D

D. Skulls B and D

E. All of these are nocturnal primates.


59. With reference to Old World monkeys and apes, which of the following statements is FALSE?

A. The dental formula for both types of primates is

B. Apes' molars are low-crowned and have 5 cusps (bumps on the grinding surfaces); monkeys's molars are high-crowned and have four cusps.

C. Apes' molars are high-crowned and have four cusps; monkeys's molars are low-crowned and have 5 cusps.

D. Monkeys' chests are narrow side to side and deep front to back; apes have broad chests, but shallow front to back.

E. Apes are brachiators; Old World monkeys never brachiate.


60. If you were walking in the forest and came upon a primate that was marking its territory by first urinating on its hands and then smearing the urine on branches, you'd most likely be in ________ and looking at a __________ .

A. South America / ring tailed lemur

B. Africa / loris

C. Central America / howler monkey

D. Southeast Asia / gibbon

E. Santa Cruz / hominid


A. Unlike most other mammals, primates are NOT characterized by one or two conspicuous traits, but by a set of physical traits that serve to distinguish primates from other mammals. Please list SIX physical traits that set primates apart from other mammals. (Do NOT list general traits, such as fur or warm-bloodedness.)

B. A number of primate species have been said to have "culture," including chimpanzees and macaques. Give two examples of cultural behavior for chimpanzees and two examples for macaques. Be very specific in your answer ­ do NOT talk about general primate traits (such as mothering or grooming).

C. Nearly all anthropologists agree with Jane Goodall that we have much to learn about ourselves by studying the non-human primates, especially the chimpanzees. What did she mean by this? (Be very specific in your answer.)

D. One of the most profound findings concerning the cognitive abilities of the primates is that members of some species can alter the symbolic meanings of either their vocalizations, their behavior, or both. We learned about chimps' and macaques' ability to do this. Give one example of this ability for both the chimps and macaques.

E. Hominids possess a number of physical features that serve to distinguish them from the other primates. For example, all the other primates have grasping feet, but hominids don't. Name two other physical features that distinguish hominids.

F. List two physical features that distinguished American monkeys from monkeys found in Africa and Asia.

G. The two chimp species differ in a number of ways. List one physical trait and one behavioral trait that serve to differentiate the two species.

H. Name one function of a dominance hierarchy.

I. List two physical features that distinguish prosimians from anthropoids.

J. List three physical features that distinguish hominoids from Old World monkeys.

K. Remember the classification chart that I kept drawing on the chalkboard to show the subdivisions within the order Primates? Well, I want you to draw that chart showing the various subdivisions.