SEAWATER CHEMISTRY OUTLINE

 

•  H2O

•  IMPORTANCE / PERCENTAGES (Hydro Cycle)/ AVAILABILITY

•  UNIQUE PROPERTIES: See Table on Page 133

•  Only substance that occurs naturally in all 3 states within temp range at earth's surface.

•  Polar compound, hydrogen bonds

•  Ability to change its state (solid, liquid gas)

•  Dissolving ability (universal solvent)

•  Maximum Density is at 4 degrees Celsius, thermal expansion, lakes freeze from top down, not bottom up

•  Water is less dense in the solid state

•  Water has High Heat Capacity, changes temp slowly, latent heat of vaporization and fusion, moderates earth's climate, excellent coolant

•  Incompressibility

•  High surface tension (droplets, bubbles)

 

•  Chapter 5: Unique properties of fresh water

•  Origin of Seawater???

•  Chapter 6: The six major constituents, trace elements

•  Salinity, normal, hypersaline, brackish

•  Changes in surface salinity

•  Sources of salts…….. Compare to river water

•  How salts removed?

•  The Principle of Constant Proportions

•  Conservative and Nonconservative Constituents

•  Residence Time

•  Determining Salinity

•  Desalination