Mus 11a- Jazz Appreciation

Overview of Jazz History and Style


-Early Jazz (1900-1920Ős)


-Stride Piano: descends from Ragtime, solo Piano, syncopated melodic rhythm, predominant 2 Beat Feel (bass/chord left hand). Jelly Roll Morton, James P. Johnson, Fats Waller, Art Tatum.


-Dixieland: result of multi-cultural mix in New Orleans (eg. Afro/Caribbean, European Bands, & Stride), 2 beat feel, collective improvisation, 1st recordings in Chicago. Louis Armstrong, King Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Bix Beiderbeck.


-Swing (mid 20Ős-1940Ős)


- Big Bands:  arrangements and original compositions written for large ensemble, danceable, singing melodies, swing feel (uneven division of beat), the popular music of the time, the Radio. Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Fats Waller, Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young.


-Bebop (1940-1950Ős)


- small ensembles, emphasis on improvisation, introduction of complex harmonies, complex angular melodies (not easily sung), up tempo, highly syncopated, comping, walking bass, drummer keeps time, use of standard forms w/ new bebop melodies. Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell, Thelonious Monk.


-Cool Jazz (1950-1965)


- The West Coast Style, emphasis on subtlety and composition, lighter tone, drummers often use brushes, fewer chord changes, use of modal scales, polychords, influence of French Impressionism. Miles Davis, Bill Evans, Art Farmer, Chet Baker, Stan Getz, A.C. Jobim, Oliver Nelson


-Hard Bop (1950Ős-1965)


- continuation of Bebop, somewhat slower tempo than Bop, original compositions, expanded role of bass player and drummer, later; influence of free jazz/ playingŇoutÓ. Clifford Brown, Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Bill Evans, McCoy Tyner, Sonny Rollins, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea.


-Free Jazz (1960Ős)


- use of Atonality/dissonance, sometimes more or less ŇfreeÓ, collective improvisation, unusual instrumentation and special effects, influence of 20th Century classical music. Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, Miles Davis


-Fusion (1968- ? )


- combines Jazz, Rock, World Music, Classical Music. Use of synthesis/electronic instruments, electric guitar, emphasis on composition, eigth note no longer swings (strait eigth), rhythm sections often include world musicians, repetitive bass lines. Small bands sound like big bands. Weather Report, Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Pat Metheny Group. Michael Brecker, Yellow Jackets.