Student Learning Objectives
Lessons / Lecture Notes
Important Equations
Example Problems
Applets and Animations
Student Learning Objectives
Lessons / Lecture Notes
PY106 Notes from Boston University (algebra-based):
Introductory physics notes from University of Winnipeg (algebra-based):
HyperPhysics (calculus-based)
How did Rutherford figure out the structure of the atomic nucleus without looking at it? Simulate the famous experiment in which he disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom by observing alpha particles bouncing off atoms and determining that they must have a small core. The photon excitation and photon emission of the electron in a Hydrogen atom as described by the Bohr model. How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting photons and alpha particles at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results. Illustrating the 3 principle modes by which X-rays interact with matter. Produce light by bombarding atoms with electrons. See how the characteristic spectra of different elements are produced, and configure your own element's energy states to produce light of different colors. Create a laser by pumping the chamber with a photon beam. Manage the energy states of the laser's atoms to control its output. Is it a tumor? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can tell. Your head is full of tiny radio transmitters (the nuclear spins of the hydrogen nuclei of your water molecules). In an MRI unit, these little radios can be made to broadcast their positions, giving a detailed picture of the inside of your head. The Eigenstate Superposition model illustrates the fundamental building blocks of one-dimensional quantum mechanics, the energy eigenfunctions ψn(x) and energy eigenvalues En. The Free Particle Energy Eigenstates model shows the time evolution of a superpostion of free particle energy eigenstates. A table shows the energy, momentum, and amplitude of each eigenstate. The QM Measurement program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function and can be used to simulate the quantum-mechanical measurements of energy, position, and/or momentum. The default wave function is an equal-mix four-state superposition in the infinite square well. The Barrier Scattering model shows a quantum mechanical experiment in which an incident wave (particle) traveling from the left is transmitted and reflected from a potential step at x=0.
Example Problems
Problem 1
In the line spectrum of atomic hydrogen there is also a group of lines known as the Pfund series. These lines are produced when electrons, excited to high energy levels, make transitions to the n = 5 level. Determine (a) the longest wavelengths and (b) the shortest wavelengths in this series. (Solutions)
Problem 2
(a) The electron in a hydrogen atom is in the first excited state, when the electron acquires an additional 2.86 eV of energy. What is the quantum number n of the state into which the electron moves? (Solutions)
(b) A laser is used in eye surgery to weld a detached retina back into place. The wavelength of the laser beam is 514 nm, and the power is 1.5 W. During surgery, the laser beam is turned on for 0.050 s. During this time, how many photons are emitted by the laser? (Solutions)
Applets and Animations
Rutherford Scattering
Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Models of the Hydrogen Atom
Interaction of X-Rays with Matter
Neon Lights and Discharge Lamps
Laser Animation
This applet illustrates a schematic operation of a laser. The yellow photons represent the pumping radiation. The group of red photons is the coherent laser beam. The balls mark the atoms making transitions between three energy levels.
Lasers
Simplified MRI
Bells Theorem
Based on an analysis by Mermin, this animation explores correlation measurements of entangled pairs.
Eigenstate Superposition
Free Particle Energy Eigenstates
Quantum Mechanical Measurement
Barrier Scattering