# Temperature and Heat

Student Learning Objectives
Lessons / Lecture Notes
Important Equations
Example Problems
Applets and Animations

Student Learning Objectives

• To understand the common temperature scales and how to convert between them.
• To understand thermal expansion.
• To understand heat and the process of heat transfer.
• To understand two important consequences of heat transfer - temperature change and phase change.
• To solve basic calorimetry problems involving heat transfer between systems.
• To understand how heat is transferred between objects by the different means of conduction, convection, and radiation.

Lessons / Lecture Notes

PY105 Notes from Boston University (algebra-based):

HyperPhysics (calculus-based)

General Physics I notes from ETSU (calculus-based)

Important Equations

Example Problems

Problem 1
How much heat is required to change 1.0 kg of ice, originally at –20.0°C, into steam at 110.0°C? Assume 1.0 atm of pressure. (Solutions)

Useful constants:

cwater = 4186 J/(kg Co)
cice = 2.00 × 103 J/(kg Co)
csteam = 2.00 × 103 J/(kg Co)
Lf = 33.5 × 104 J/kg
Lv = 22.6 × 105 J/kg

Problem 2
What mass of water at 95.0 oC must be mixed with 150.0 g of ice at –5.00 oC, in a thermally insulated container, to produce liquid water at 50.0 oC? (Solutions)

Useful constants:

cwater = 4186 J/(kg Co)
cice = 2.00 × 103 J/(kg Co)
Lf = 33.5 × 104 J/kg
Lv = 22.6 × 105 J/kg

Problem 3
One end of an iron poker is placed in a fire where the temperature is 502 oC, and the other end is kept at a temperature of 26 oC. The poker is 1.2 m long and has a radius of 5.0 × 10-3 m. Ignoring the heat lost along the length of the poker, find the amount of heat conducted from one end of the poker to the other in 5.0 s. (Solutions)

Applets and Animations
 Gas Properties Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other. States of Matter Watch different types of molecules form a solid, liquid, or gas. Add or remove heat and watch the phase change. Change the temperature or volume of a container and see a pressure-temperature diagram respond in real time. Relate the interaction potential to the forces between molecules. Reversible Reactions Watch a reaction proceed over time. How does total energy affect a reaction rate? Vary temperature, barrier height, and potential energies. Record concentrations and time in order to extract rate coefficients. Do temperature dependent studies to extract Arrhenius parameters. This simulation is best used with teacher guidance because it presents an analogy of chemical reactions.